Kiev was laid down on 21 July 1970 and launched on 26 December 1972. She was completed and commissioned on 28 December 1975, but officially entered service only in February 1977, after completing all trials.
On 16 July 1976 she sailed from Sevastopol in the Black Sea, and on 20 July began testing her Yakovlev Yak-36M aircraft (four Yak-36M and one Yak-36MU onboard) under sea conditions in the Mediterranean off Crete. On 10 August 1976 she arrived in Severomorsk, Murmansk Oblast, and was attached to the Northern Fleet's 170th Anti-Submarine Warfare Brigade, and conducted extensive tests up to December. Between 12 and 19 April 1977 she took part in the Sever-77 exercise, and on 26 June 1977 was reclassified from Protivolodochnyye Kreysery (PKR) "ASW cruiser" to Tyazhelyye Avianesushchiye Kreysery (TAVKR) "Heavy aircraft carrying cruiser". Between 20 December 1977 and 21 April 1978 she participated in operations in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. On 3 November 1978 she hit a sand bar, but suffered no damage. She took part in a local exercise on 4 August 1978, and on 11 October in final tests of the main missiles in the White Sea.
List of aircraft carriers of Russia and the Soviet Union
The list of aircraft carriers of the Soviet Union and Russia includes all aircraft carriers built by, proposed for, or in service with the naval forces of either the Soviet Union or Russia. Although listed as aircraft carriers, none of these ships (with the possible exception of the never built Ulyanovsk) was or is a true aircraft carrier. Specifically, they were ASW helicopter equipped ships or aircraft-carrying cruisers, including the FADMSU Kuznetsov, the only carrier still in service with the Russian Navy.
Kiev (/ˈkiːɛf, -ɛv/) or Kyiv (Ukrainian:Київ[ˈkɪjiu̯]; Russian:Киев[ˈkʲiɪf]) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population in July 2013 was 7006284720000000000♠2,847,200 (though higher estimated numbers have been cited in the press), making Kiev the 8th largest city in Europe.
Kiev is an important industrial, scientific, educational, and cultural centre of Eastern Europe. It is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions and world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and highly developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro.
The city's name is said to derive from the name of Kyi, one of its four legendary founders (see Name, below). During its history, Kiev, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity. The city probably existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until seized by the Varangians (Vikings) in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the Kievan Rus', the first East Slavic state. Completely destroyed during the Mongol invasion in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; first the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, followed by Poland and Russia.
At the end of November 2009 Gevorg Vartanyan of Arax, a Ukrainian distributor of reworked medium format Kiev cameras and lenses, wrote to tell customers that the Arsenal factory was closing after 245 years of operation. The email said that management had been turned over to the Special Construction Department (SKTB), all work had stopped and the workers laid off, and that the factory warehouse was empty. He thought that Arax had enough cameras and parts to remain in business for at least another 4–5 years. The amount of stock remaining with other distributors around the world is unknown.
Kiev medium format cameras
The Kiev brand is probably best known for two 6×6 medium format cameras:
An almost direct clone of the original Hasselblad 1600 F sometimes jokingly referred to as a Hasselbladski.
Kiev is an Americanindie rock band founded in Orange, CA. It consists of members Andrew Stavas (keys, saxophone), Brandon Corn (drums, percussion), Derek Poulsen (bass, computers), and Robert Brinkerhoff (guitar, vocals). They self-released their first EP titled "Ain't No Scary Folks In On Around Here" in 2010 which has been characterized as "like having your ear work on a good puzzle". Their first single "Crooked Strings" received airplay on KROQ's Locals Only show. A second EP was released in 2011 titled "Be Gone Dull Cage & Others". The band was named "Best Indie Band" at the 2011 Orange County Music Awards and is known for "its intricate, eclectic music and big live sound". Los Angeles blog Buzzbands.LA describes their sound as "trippy and cerebral at the same time, occupying that sometimes-exhilarating, sometimes-discomfiting space between left and right brain". On November 2nd, 2014, the band's hit single, "Be Gone Dull Cage," was featured on The Walking Dead (Season 5, Episode 4).
There were plans to convert Iowa-class battleships into hybrid aircraft carriers ...Navy's Essex-class of aircraft carriers ... When the Soviets developed a hybrid battlecruiser and aircraft carrier known as the Kiev-class (Project 1143 Krechyet) in the 1970s, a fresh look was taken at potentially doing something similar in the US Navy.
Reuters Over the past century, the SovietUnion and Russia after it had several grand plans to build and field aircraft carriers ... Soviet Kiev-class aircraft carrier Minsk, February 9, 1983 ... The mid-1980s were a period of major expansion for the Soviet Navy, including aircraft carriers.
An additional limitation of significance is the agreement’s prohibition of the transit of aircraft carriers. The Montreux Convention describes an aircraft carrier under Annex II. ... One of the reasons why the SovietUnion classified the Kiev class and Kuznetsov class vessels as “heavy aircraft carrying cruiser” was to circumvent this restriction.
GREG BAKER/AFP via Getty ImagesUS Navy aircraft carriers have been a dominant force on the world's oceans for decades ... To that end, the Soviet navy emphasized cruise missile technology and missile-carrying capacity on all of its vessels - even on its own aircraft carriers. Soviet navy Kiev-class aircraft carrier Minsk, February 9, 1983.
Soviet aircraft carrier Leningrad in 1988... Soviet aircraft carrier Leningrad, April 1, 1990 ... Soviet Kiev-class aircraft carrier Minsk, February 9, 1983 ... The prevented carriers from passing, but the Soviet designation of "heavy aircraft carrying cruiser" was an acceptable loophole for Turkey.Post-Soviet life.
... well as unguided bombs that can be mounted to 12 external bracings) and a 30-mm air gun. Aircraft carrier to India ... The INS ‘Vikramaditya’ (or previously ‘Admiral Gorshkov’ aircraft carrier) is a Soviet-era modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier.
In the early 2000s, India went shopping for a new aircraft carrier ... In 1988, the SovietUnion commissioned the aircraft carrier Baku. She and her four sisters of the Kiev class represented a unique Soviet design ... The remaining two-thirds of the ship was basically an aircraft carrier, with an angled flight deck and a hangar.
Key Point. Aircraft carriers are complex vessels. Aircraft carriers are, with the possible exception of submarines, the most complicated naval vessels afloat ... The first and only true aircraft carrier completed by the SovietUnion during the Cold War, Kuznetsov was a follow-on to the Kiev-class carriers.
India’s sole aircraft carrier started its life as the Admiral Gorshkov, a SovietKiev-class warship commissioned in the late 1980s...Commissioned between 2014 and 2016, they feature advanced Israeli-built radar, which India also plans to install on its future destroyers and first indigenous aircraft carrier.
At the tail end of the Cold War, the SovietUnion produced a number of unique aircraft carriers. Known as the Kiev class, the carriers were the Soviets’ initial foray into the world of fixed wing naval aviation, and the only Soviet carriers to become fully operational.
The navy protects the waters in the vicinity of a country and help to support other military arms including aircraft carriers, vehicle and tank cruisers, and supply ships ...Indian Modified-KievClass – one of two aircraft carriers in the Indian Navy, the INS Vikramaditya began life as a Soviet1980s ship.
Living in terror. Zheng Jiefu says he is being followed. Photo. Joe Armao ... "They were waiting at my door ... Until that point, Mr Zheng had courted publicity, such as when he towed an old aircraft carrier, The Kiev, from the SovietUnion to Tianjin, where it is now the centrepiece of a military museum ... All of that, unfortunately, is not so unusual ... .